- Mandukya Upanishad
- The Mandukya is a short UPANISHAD (12 small stanzas) in the Atharva Veda, one of the most important for the ADVAITA (non-dual) VEDANTA of SHANKARA. Shankara’s guru, GAUDAPADA, wrote a commentary on the Mandukya Upanishad that became important in that tradition.In its first stanza the Upanishad establishes the supremacy of the syllable om, equating it to the ultimate BRAHMAN. Stanzas 3 through 7 outline the four STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS. Stanzas 9 through 12 establish that the four parts of om (esoteri-cally understood as a, u, m, and a fourth, which is beyond parts) are identical to the four states of consciousness, thus establishing om as the ATMAN or self.Further reading: Patrick Olivelle, trans., The Early Upanishads (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998); S. Radhakrishnan, The Principal Upanishads (Atlantic Highlands, N.J.: Humanities Press, 1994); Thomas E. Wood, The Mandukya Upanisad and the Agamasastra: An Investigation Into the Meaning of the Vedanta (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1990).
Encyclopedia of Hinduism. A. Jones and James D. Ryan. 2007.